During an e-Commerce transaction or a mail-order or telephone-order (MOTO) transaction, the merchant can ask the cardholder for their billing address. If the cardholder provides an address that matches the address that the cardholder has provided to their issuing bank, the transaction passes the AVS check. If the transaction does not pass the AVS check, the merchant can choose whether to accept or to decline the transaction. During an e-Commerce transaction or a MOTO transaction, the merchant should request the CVV of the card. The CVV is a three-digit code or a four-digit code on the card. If the CVV is correct, the issuing bank approves the transaction. If the CVV is incorrect, the issuing bank declines the transaction. Issuing banks use 3-D Secure to help prevent fraud in e-commerce payments. For more information about 3-D Secure, go to 3-D Secure.Note: The major card brands such as VISA, Mastercard, and American Express don’t require a signature to complete a transaction. However, a merchant can require signatures for their own records.